It is an interesting thing reflecting on the nature of care I saw in Guyana. I found myself struggling to keep up with state of the art techniques while practicing in a setting having to comply with the status quo. My favorite mental exercise while practicing down in this resource poor environment was “what drug can I give this patient today”. So much of the time in the states the answer is fairly easy and has a protocol behind it. Often the hospital in Georgetown would run out a typically used drug, which forced me to stop and think. I feel this made me a better physician.

Aug. 12, 2015 | CNN Español

Guatemalan Mothers

This is a difficult statistic to understand and even more difficult to ignore in the second decade of the century.

According to the World Health Organization, nearly 800 women die each day from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth worldwide.

All but 1% of these deaths occur in developing countries and perhaps most tragic of all is that 80% of them are preventable.

When speaking of maternal deaths, much of the focus is on Africa, which represents about 50% of global statistics.

But the problem goes far beyond the borders of sub-Saharan Africa; Guatemala, in Central America, has the highest maternal and child mortality rates in the region.

Maternal mortality in Guatemala

While in Guatemala maternal deaths have decreased since the United Nations included improving maternal health in their Millennium Development Goals in 2000, the rate is still unacceptably high.

According to WHO, 140 deaths occur for every 100,000 births. Most of these deaths occur among indigenous peoples, most of them Mayans where poor women are the least likely to receive adequate medical care and where fertility rates are highest.

Poor maternal health is one of the key issues at the center of the malnutrition crisis in Guatemala ... and very young children are the undeniable face of hunger. The first 1,000 days of a child's life - from conception to his or her second birthday - are the most important.

But in Guatemala, almost 50% of children under five are chronically malnourished to such a degree that they remain stunted for life, both physically and in their development, as indicated by UNICEF

According to the World Food Programme, Guatemala has the fourth highest rate of stunting in the world.

This can lead to severe developmental delays, poor performance in school and reduced productivity throughout their adulthood. But despite the many problems that can result from an unwanted pregnancy, many women have no say as to whether or not they get pregnant or how often.

Family planning, the big challenge

This can be particularly difficult in part because it is a patriarchal society where women's health is not considered a priority. But also because many families have much value and contraceptives are at odds with the culture and tradition.

Dr. Jenny Eaton Dyer is the executive director of Hope Through Healing Hands (HTHH) based in Nashville, Tennessee. Its aim is to educate Americans about family planning and maternal and child health around the world, and increase funding for these causes.

Earlier this year, Dyer traveled to Guatemala with the humanitarian organization CARE with a diverse delegation. The delegation traveled to Quetzaltenango, in the western highlands, to visit Mayan women and learn about nutrition, how to care for themselves and their newborns, and to discuss some of the main challenges they faced.

One of the main problems they found was that women had limited access to health services, especially in rural areas. Part of this is due to lack of transport, but also women have no influence on the decision-making process.

Because of this, many women don't space their pregnancies, as recommended by the UN to wait at least two years after delivery.

This creates another set of problems. Pregnancies too close together can lead to health problems for both mothers and newborns, and that's one of the underlying causes of child mortality.

Dyer said that educating families on this issue is a primary goal of HTHH. "If we can help empower women to improve both the timing and how long they wait between pregnancies, they have the opportunity to continue to study, get a job or a profession and become economically independent."

The benefit, according to Dyer, extends beyond the immediate family. "This then is a virtuous circle that women have healthier and stronger children, stronger families and ultimately, stronger nations."

Although programs designed to help indigenous women learn about the value of nutrition, family planning and healthy spacing of pregnancies, much remains to be done, not only in Guatemala but throughout the world.

The Faith-Based Coalition for Healthy Mothers and Children campaign says that maternal, newborn and child health, along with the healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies (HTSP) is "an axis of global health," and one of the most cost-effective and powerful strategies to empower women.

"If we are able to improve maternal health and child survival, mothers can return to work, which increases the GDP per capita for the family and fights extreme poverty and hunger," says Dr. Dyer.

"If family planning is linked, children can stay in school because if there are fewer children, parents can afford to pay for their education, women can stay in school and finish high school and even go to college if they can prevent pregnancy ... and if women can get an education and compete for jobs because they make healthy choices for themselves and their families, this supports maternal health promoting gender equality," she adds.

Read the original article on CNN Español

Aug. 11, 2015 | The Guardian

Africa has achieved a year without any new cases of wild polio for the first time, but experts warn that violent insurgencies could yet prove their “achilles heel” in finally eradicating the disease.

The poliomyelitis virus attacks the nervous system and can cause irreversible paralysis within hours of infection. No cases have been identified in Africa since 11 August last year in the Hobyo district of Mudug province in Somalia, meaning that the continent is two years away from being certified polio-free.

But both Somalia and Nigeria, which also saw its last polio case in 2014, are battling Islamist militant groups – al-Shabaab and Boko Haram respectively – raising fears that vaccines will not reach children displaced by conflict.

“I just hope Boko Haram will not be the achilles heel of our work,” said Oyewale Tomori, professor of virology at the Nigerian Academy of Science, who has dedicated four decades of his life to polio research. “Unless we get rid of the insurgency, we cannot be sure we will eradicate polio.”

In Nigeria there is a target cohort of 5 million to 6 million children each year, he added, and vaccines must reach 90%-95% of them to prevent polio recurring. “Getting vaccines to displaced people will be crucial,” said Tomori.

Read the full article on The Guardian.

I was lucky to have travelled to Kijabe at an exciting time; there has been an increase in awareness in the medical community about the lack of access to safe anesthesia in low-middle income countries. The GE corporation has been prescient and magnanimous in their support of the efforts by anesthesiologists at Vanderbilt to create a sustainable program to educate Kenyan nurse anesthetists on how to provide a safe anesthetic.
The travel time was the most painstaking part of the process to return to Rwanda, not because it took me over 24 hours but because I was just so ready to be back. They say third time’s a charm so I guess we shall see. The first time I arrived was in 2009, I was as a freshly graduated young adult with hopes of changing the world. The Peace Corps was instrumental in curbing my idealism and provided a better picture of what development and progress looks like.

July 31, 2015 | The Guardian

A vaccine against Ebola has been shown to be 100% successful in trials conducted during the outbreak in Guinea and is likely to bring the west African epidemic to an end, experts say.

The results of the trials involving 4,000 people are remarkable because of the unprecedented speed with which the development of the vaccine and the testing were carried out.

Scientists, doctors, donors and drug companies collaborated to race the vaccine through a process that usually takes more than a decade in just 12 months.

“Having seen the devastating effects of Ebola on communities and even whole countries with my own eyes, I am very encouraged by today’s news,” said Børge Brende, the foreign minister of Norway, which helped fund the trial.

“This new vaccine, if the results hold up, may be the silver bullet against Ebola, helping to bring the current outbreak to zero and to control future outbreaks of this kind. I would like to thank all partners who have contributed to achieve this sensational result, due to an extraordinary and rapid collaborative effort,” he said on Friday.

There have been a total of 27,748 cases of Ebola in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone up to 26 July, with 11,279 reported deaths, although the outcome of many cases is unknown and the toll will be significantly higher. In the week ending 26 July, there were just four new cases in Guinea and three in Sierra Leone.

Read the full article on The Guardian

July 24, 2015 | Belmont University

When doctorate of nursing practice student Jennifer Quigley realized she would be the first Belmont recipient of the Frist Global Health Fellowship, she said she was eager to use her passion for global health to implement a plan for teaching health care providers in Cap-Haitien, Haiti a modern method of natural family planning. Her trip was born of a partnership between Belmont’s College of Health Sciences and Nursing and the organization Hope Through Healing Hands, which was founded by Former U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, M.D.

Although the goal of the trip was to assist the Haitian people, Quigley was quick to say the trip was life-changing for her, as well. “I learned so much more from the Haitian people than they learned from me. I have never seen a more joyous people, full of life and love, and each was eager to show me love. Though they did not have much, I never went hungry, and I always had water. They joyfully give, even if they have so little to start with,” she said. “I also had the opportunity to deliver a baby, with only one other nurse, no drugs and not sterile equipment — only a clean room and the two of us. It was an experience I will hold with me for the rest of my life.”

Read the full article on Belmont University

July 24, 2015 | The Telegraph

Scientists across Africa are celebrating the news that the world's first vaccine against malaria has been approved by the European Medicines Agency.

The vaccine, named Mosquirix, was given the green light on Friday after more than 30 years of research, detailed in 230,000 pages of data. It now means that the vaccine will be examined by the World Health Organisation and, if approved, could be administered to children across Africa within the next few years.

"It's massively significant," said Allan Pamba, vice president for pharmaceuticals in East Africa for GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), which has spent more than $356 million (£230m) to date on finding a vaccine. GSK expects to invest a further $200 to $250 million until development is completed. In January 2001, GSK and PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, with grant monies from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to PATH, entered into a public-private partnership to develop a vaccine. PATH has invested more than $200 million, much of it from the Gateses.

"Malaria has been incredibly difficult to crack. It's been tremendously frustrating. But we are all immensely proud to have reached this milestone."

Data is important. Because of data collection and monitoring, UNICEF can report that, “On average, one out of every 11 children born in sub-Saharan Africa dies before the age of 5.” In this example, data demonstrates the magnitude of the problem and serves as a catalyst for people to come together to develop strategies and implement programs to improve child health. Then, with continued data collection and monitoring, progress towards reducing child mortality can be measured.

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